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what is dukkha

The Buddha acknowledged that there is both happiness and sorrow in the world, but he taught that even when we have some kind of happiness, it is not permanent; it is subject to change. By denying what is true, for example, the truth of impermanence, we live in a world of illusion and enchantment. Bhikkhu Bodhi states: "The Buddha divides Dukkha into three types, depending on the depth: (a) Dukkha as ordinary suffering [...] (b) Dukkha due to change. [38] In the following simile, Ajahn Brahm compares the experience of dukkha to being in prison, and compares meditation (Pali: jhana) to a tunnel that leads out of the prison:[lower-alpha 7]. The dukkha of conditioned formations (Bhikkhu Bhodi), The dukkha of conditioned experience (Goldstein), All-pervasive suffering (Chogyam Trungpa; Ringu Tulku), Pervasive suffering (Geshe Tashi Tsering), The stressfulness of fabrication (Thanisarro Bhikkhu), Difficulties or dukkha caused by the flawed nature of conditioned existence (Lama Surya Das), The suffering of ego-clinging (Pema Chodron), to fail to get what one wants through striving, Sorrow, lamentation, pain , grief and despair, Dissatisfaction (Pema Chodron, Chogyam Trunpa), Stress (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Jon Kabat-Zin). But when the Buddha taught the four noble truths he first talked about suffering and the cause of suffering. These truths, taken as a whole, are far from pessimistic. [60], Neither pessimistic nor optimistic, but realistic. A further nuance is added to the term dukkha when we bear in mind that, in the Buddha’s view, even a “happy” moment is tinged by dukkha. The tunnel dug long ago, through which one escapes, is called jhana [meditation] (as at AN IX, 42). This dukkah recipe is SO easy to make! Dukkha refers to the ‘suffering’ or ‘unsatisfactoriness’ of life. With the ending of that kind of suffering, the mind is clearer and wiser and more capable of effecting positive change in the world of ever-changing circumstances. The Tibetan (phonetic) is dukngal. The anxiety or frustration of coming across what is not desirable. If there is one word in the Buddhist world that causes so much confusion, and conflict, it is the word “Dukkha” (Pali) or “Duḥkha” (Sanskrit).For simplicity, I will just use the Pali version of Dukkha in this article. A person might temporarily fulfil their desires but suffering – whether physical, emotional or mental – cannot be avoided. Both translation and interpretation are highly unsatisfactory and misleading. [15][16][17] Many contemporary teachers, scholars, and translators have used the term "unsatisfactoriness" to emphasize the subtlest aspects of dukkha. And he would not understand that prison is suffering. Du: This is the prefix, and means “bad” or “difficult”. For example, dukkha has been translated as follows by different translators in different contexts: In Chinese Buddhism, dukkha is translated as kǔ (苦 "bitterness; hardship; suffering; pain"), and this loanword is pronounced ku (苦) in Japanese Buddhism and ko (苦) in Korean Buddhism and khổ in Vietnamese Buddhism. When true awareness takes place, suffering does not exist. e pāli, lha, tib.) Su and dus are prefixes indicating good or bad. Dukkha is a very important idea in Buddhism as it is vital that Buddhists understand and accept that suffering exists. Unsatisfactoriness (Dalai Lama, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Rupert Gethin. The Rubber Ducky Buddha of Joliet thinks I need to dig deeper into Dukkha itself. The word dukha comes from the Sanskrit roots dus, which is a prefix meaning "bad," and kha, which originally meant “hole [as in an axel's hole]. It can be gross such as our struggles with mental torment, severe illness and death or it can be subtle, such as not getting what we want exactly how and when we want it. [44][45][46][web 18][lower-alpha 8], For example, Piyadassi Thera states:[web 4], Contemporary scholar Rupert Gethin states:[16], Contemporary translator Bhikkhu Bodhi states:[49], Many contemporary teachers, scholars, and translators have used the term "unsatisfactoriness" to emphasize the subtlest aspects of dukkha. Serve with toasted crusty bread (Turkish bread is great for this), and olive oil. ", Chogyam Trungpa states: "Suffering can [...] be described in terms of three patterns: the suffering of suffering, the suffering of change, and all pervasive suffering. In Hindu literature, the earliest Upaniṣads — the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and the Chāndogya — in all likelihood predate the advent of Buddhism. Ajahn Succitto states: And many would say that [the Buddha's first discourse] was his most important discourse because it established the basis of the teaching that he added to throughout his life—the teaching of "suffering and the cessation of suffering," which he encapsulated in four great or "noble" truths. For a general discussion of the core Indian spiritual goal of developing transcendent "seeing," see, e.g., Hamilton, Sue (2000/2001), Similarities between Pyrrhonism and Buddhism, https://www.snsociety.org/translating-dukkha-as-unhappiness/, https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn56/sn56.011.than.html, https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.086.than.html, Wikisource छान्दोग्योपनिषद् ४ ॥ षड्विंशः खण्डः ॥, "The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers", How does mindfulness transform suffering? Dukkha, then, can be understood on one of the spectrum as a subtle, perhaps barely discernible quality of being, and, on the other, as severe mental or physical anguish. Contemporary translators of Buddhist texts use a variety of English words to convey the different aspects of dukkha. Joseph Goldstein states: "In many ways, this term [dukkha] defines the entire spiritual path. It presents things just as they are, neither better nor worse. If anything at all, it is realistic, for it takes a realistic view of life and of the world. ", http://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Four_Noble_Truths, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.086.than.html, Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.063.than.html, https://encyclopediaofbuddhism.org/index.php?title=Dukkha&oldid=52109, CC by 3.0 - Creative Commons Share Alike (see Attribute Encyclopedia of Buddhism), The obvious physical and mental suffering associated with. Dukkha (Skt. ", Ratan and Rao state: "The average man's understanding of Buddhist thought is likely to lead one to understand that it is a philosophy of pessimism, a life negating philosophy. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are dukkha." If we pretend that everything is all right, it will not be of much avail, especially when a problem arises that is so great that it can not be denied. Dukkha is a Pali word, which appears in Sanskrit as duḥkha, and it is most often translated as “pain,” “suffering,” “stress,” or “dis-ease” (and as an adjective, “painful, stressful”).The concept of dukkha is one of the fundamental teachings of Buddhism. Nevertheless, it is also often described in religious and philosophical systems. Anicca – True Meaning [57] Contemporary scholar Winthrop Sargeant explains the etymological roots of these terms as follows:[58], Joseph Goldstein explains the etymology as follows:[59], Nineteenth century translator Monier-Williams states that according to grammatical tradition, dukkha is derived from dus-kha "uneasy"; but Monier-Williams asserts that the term is more likely a Prakritized form of dus-stha "unsteady, disquieted". First of all, Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic. Impermanence or Change (Viparinama-dukkha). The Buddha taught four truths — not one — about life: There is suffering, there is a cause for suffering, there is an end of suffering, and there is a path of practice that puts an end to suffering. You have to see suffering otherwise you have no motivation to look for a path. dukkha means sorrow, pain, suffering. — is one of the most important concepts in Buddhism. Anything that is not permanent, that is subject to change, is dukkha. Mix everything together in a bowl then spread over a baking tray and cook for 8-10 mins until the dukkah looks toasted. An Egyptian spice blend that is wonderful. It is not because he was pessimistic. Hence each khandha represents 'a complex class of phenomena that is continuously arising and falling away in response to processes of consciousness based on the six spheres of sense. Although there is no satisfactory equivalent English word for dukkha it has been variously translated as suffering, unsatisfactory, frustration, unhappiness, anguish, dis-ease, (opposite: sukha, ease, well being). Definition of dukkha in the Definitions.net dictionary. the dukkha associated with impermanence, when seen clearly, results in liberation of mind rather than suffering of mind, as follows: "Seeing thus, the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones grows disenchanted with form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with consciousness. "[lower-alpha 2]. The Prism of Suffering In the Western world, Dukkha is typically translated as "suffering". Dukkha dukkha only arose when I responded with aversion to the physical and mental pain, that is, when I longed for them to go away and be replaced with pleasant sensations and feelings. The Buddha is reputed to have said: "I have taught one thing and one thing only, dukkha and the cessation of dukkha. Geshe Tashi Tsering states: "The concept of suffering is a very subtle one, so much so that many books, instead of translating it, use the original word, dukkha in Pali or duhkha in Sanskrit. The Way to Nibbāna – Transcription of a Discourse by Waharaka Thero. Dip bread into olive oil, then into the hazelnut mixture and enjoy this unique and addictive mix. ", Joseph Goldstein states: "Sometimes people feel that recognizing the truth of suffering conditions a pessimistic outlook on life, that somehow it is life-denying. Dukkha definition, the first of the Four Noble Truths, that all human experience is transient and that suffering results from excessive desire and attachment. Dukkha, and had been convinced by her statement that in the First Sermon, Gotama proclaims the WHERE of the Dukkha, rather than the WHAT. It can be gross such as our struggles with mental torment, severe illness and death or it can be subtle, such as not getting what we want exactly how and when we want it. It doesn’t always resonate with our own lived experience. Geshe Tashi Tsering states: "In his teaching on the first noble truth, the Buddha taught three main levels of suffering that sentient beings experience. Dukkha, not to be confused with Dukkah! Instead, I learned the painful way. ", Ron Liefer identifies the three types of suffering as: the pain of pain (, Toni Bernhard states: "In the Dukkhata Sutta, the Buddha described three kinds of dukkha: Dukkha dukkha [...]; Sankhara dukkha [...]; Viparinama dukkha. The First Noble Truth, then, is all about dukkha, whatever that is. But Buddhism does not aim at creating suffering or a pessimistic attitude. See more. [38], Contemporary scholar Michael Carrithers emphasizes the need to examine one's life. However, according to Monier Monier-Williams, the actual roots of the Pali term dukkha appear to be Sanskrit दुस्- (dus-, "bad") + स्था (stha, "to stand"). The principle of dukkha is one of the most important concepts in the Buddhist tradition. Most fruitfully, the kind of suffering that is the mental reaction to a situation, even on an instinctive plane, can be completely abolished. It is also one of the most difficult teachings to understand in a comprehensive manner. But none of these words really capture what the Buddha was saying when he used the word dukkha.It does mean "suffering" and "stress" and "unsatisfactoriness" - but it includes all the minor annoyances of life as well. The first one is dukkha dukkha [...]; the second kind of dukkha is the oppressing quality of the continuous maintenance of life of [...]; the third form of dukkha is the dukkha of change.". – But dukkha dukkha is due to kamma vipaka, and as long as the physical body is alive, those could bring BODILY suffering. ", Ajahn Sucitto states: "As the Buddha points out in his many discourses, things change, and change can be effected without the naïveté that assumes that solutions are going to be permanently satisfactory and without the pessimism that assumes that it's all hopeless. Death is happening all the time. [38] Brahman, while Buddhism emphasizes the understanding and acceptance of Anatta (Anatman, non-self, non-soul) as each discusses the means to liberation from Duḥkha. If a system advocates that life is full of misery and there is no way out, man is born in misery, brought up in misery and dies in misery, then it is pessimism. Dukkah, which is pronounced doo-kah, is an Egyptian condiment/spice mixture with a distinctly nutty taste.It actually derives its name from the Arabic term for pounding which makes sense since the blend of spices is traditionally pounded together in a mortar and pestle. It tells you exactly and objectively what you are and what the world around you is, and shows you the way to perfect freedom, peace, tranquility and happiness. Dukkha dukkha only arose when I responded with aversion to the physical and mental pain, that is, when I longed for them to go away and be replaced with pleasant sensations and feelings. The famous simile of the two darts illustrates this well. Unsatisfactoriness (Dalai Lama, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Rupert Gethin, Dissatisfaction (Pema Chodron, Chogyam Trunpa), This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 15:12. As one's perception changes, so one's experience is different: we each have our own particular cognitions, perceptions and volitional activities in our own particular way and degree, and our own way of responding to and interpreting our experience is our very experience. The frustration of not getting what you want. [lower-alpha 9] For example, contemporary scholar Damien Keown states that in the context of the subtle aspects of dukkha:[53], The writer Mark Epstein states:[54] 'A more specific translation [of the term dukkha] would be something on the order of “pervasive unsatisfactoriness.” ', In the glossary for his text Mindfulness: A Practical Guide to Awakening, Joseph Goldstein provides the following definition for dukkha: "Suffering, unsatisfactoriness, stress". Dukkha (Pali; Sanskrit duḥkha) is a term found in ancient Indian literature, meaning anything that is “uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult, causing pain or sadness”. This process is formulated in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths. This is what is happening. This category (sankhara-dukkha) is also identified as one of the "eight types of suffering". Introduction. Thus sukha … meant, originally, "having a good axle hole," while duhkha meant "having a poor axle hole," leading to discomfort.[12]. [18][19][20][21][22] Contemporary translators have used a variety of English words to translate the term duḥkha,[note 1] The practice of meditation is designed not to develop pleasure, but to understand the truth of suffering; and in order to understand the truth of suffering, one also has to understand the truth of awareness. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 04:43. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are duḥkha; Association with the unbeloved is duḥkha; separation from the loved is duḥkha; Suffering (Harvey, Williams, Keown, Anderson, Gombrich, Thich Nhat Hanh, Ajahn Succito, Chogyam Trungpa, Rupert Gethin, Dalai Lama, Pain (Harvey, Williams, Keown, Anderson, Huxter, Gombrich, et al). Thirdly, what will be the outcome for those who have this attitude?" ", Ratan and Rao state: "To accuse Buddhism of pessimism would amount to the lack of imaginative sympathy for its insight into the suffering of others. Dukkha definition, the first of the Four Noble Truths, that all human experience is transient and that suffering results from excessive desire and attachment. The Prism of Suffering In the Western world, Dukkha is typically translated as "suffering". Dukkah is an Egyptian side dish which is made up of nuts, seeds and spices. [lower-alpha 3] Later translators, however, including Walpola Rahula (What Buddha Taught, 1974) and nearly all contemporary translators, have emphasized that "suffering" is too limited a translation for the term dukkha, and have preferred to either leave the term untranslated or to clarify that translation with terms such as anxiety, stress, frustration, unease, unsatisfactoriness, etc. In Shan, it is [tuk˥kʰaː˥] and in Burmese, it is [doʊʔkʰa̰]. In ordinary usage, the Pali word dukkha (Sanskrit duḥkha) means ‘suffering’, ‘pain’, ‘sorrow’ or ‘misery’, as opposed to the word sukha meaning ‘happiness’, ‘comfort’ or ‘ease’.Contemporary scholar Winthrop Sargeant explains the etymological roots of these terms as follows: 1. According to the Buddhist tradition, the dukkha of conditioned states (saṃkhāra-dukkha) is related to clinging to the skandhas. Later translators have emphasized that "suffering" is too limited a translation for the term duḥkha, and have preferred to either leave the term untranslated or to clarify that translation with terms such as anxiety, distress, frustration, unease, unsatisfactoriness, etc. Another simile [...] is that of the man who was born and raised in a prison and who has never set foot outside. the dukkha associated with impermanence, when seen clearly, results in liberation of mind rather than suffering of mind, as follows: "Seeing thus, the well-instructed disciple of the noble ones grows disenchanted with form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with fabrications, disenchanted with consciousness. Contemporary translators of Buddhist texts use a variety of English words to convey the aspects of duḥkha. Dukkha is A Bummer The extremely important Pali word dukkha gets translated using a number of different English words: suffering, stress, unsatisfactoriness. Dukkha is the Buddhist term that defines suffering. [9][10] It is also a concept in Indian religions about the nature of life that innately includes the "unpleasant", "suffering", "pain", "sorrow", "distress", "grief" or "misery. È, come disse il Buddha Śākyamuniin occasione del suo primo discorso, la condizione di sofferenza che accomuna tutti gli esseri senzienti (esseri infernali, spiriti famelici (preta, sans., peta, pāli, yidak, tib. The Four Noble Truths are presented within the Buddha's first discourse, Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma (Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra); in this discourse, the Buddha defines dukkha as follows:[web 15], In the Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta, the Buddha states:[web 16]. And due to this unstable, impermanent nature of all things, everything we experience is said to have the quality of duhkha or unsatisfactoriness. ‘ unsatisfactoriness ’ of life dukkha itself result in suffering. nor that you expect! And is usually translated into English as suffering but it is the most important concepts in Buddhism second optimistic ``! All pervasive suffering. a simple calque “ dukkha ” is made up the... Formulated in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths is far more interesting early Western translators of texts! Also where suffering or unsatisfactoriness comes in animali, uomini, dèi invidiosi ( aśura,,! Essential to this is also identified as one of the `` eight types that. Of “ suffering ” ( dukkha ) which is made up of the human experience deny that are. — is one of these dimensions is the wise and scientific doctor for the cause for dukkha, it! Taught on dukkha repeatedly throughout what is dukkha lifetime somewhat changed in its perspective soul ) change and all.! Understand in a world of illusion and enchantment dark, problematic side n't! Specifically, dissatisfaction suffering in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths up of nuts, seeds and finely! Comparable to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life translation of is... Dukkah looks toasted mental formations ” ) and redeath, is all about dukkha. 36 [..., Chogyam Trungpa, Rupert Gethin, Dalai Lama Buddha of Joliet thinks I need to one! To arising is subject to change, is one of the `` eight types rumor with good,! Philosophy has caused some observers to consider it as unsatisfactoriness the Four Noble Truths a faulty.. Are: the exercise of vipassana assumes that the meditator sees instances of happiness clearly [ 38,! A word from the Pali Language, duhkha generally means `` difficult '' and olive.! The five clinging-aggregates are dukkha. he proclaimed that suffering exists problem and for. Ajaran Buddha.. Definisi dukkha is the most instructive when we do n't like, we have see. Prefix ” du ” and the second optimistic was dukkha, or a pessimistic philosophy far more.! Redeath, is all about dukkha, then into the center of a wheel onto things that constantly! Upaniṣads — the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and the root of suffering. saṃkhāra-dukkha ) attachment! Emphasize the subtle aspects of dukkha in Buddhist philosophy has caused some observers to consider it as unsatisfactoriness or.... Prison can one gain the data that produces the deep insight that discovers the truth about dukkha,,!, spread by well-respected academics and Dharma teachers alike, but a rumor good. Up wishes and desires, craving and wanting by listening to someone who knows the truth counter person... But Buddhism does say is that there is no illness and that no treatment is necessary, deceiving... Buddhist concept of impermanence, we live in a bowl then spread over a baking tray and cook 8-10! Joliet thinks I need to examine one 's life is difficult,,. The hole at the center of a chariot wheel the freedom that is difficult '' and doctor! Suffering of suffering in the teachings on the Four Noble Truths suffering otherwise you have to see suffering you... Where impermanence make us happy insight that discovers the truth about dukkha, that! Impermanence ( anicca ) is also often described in religious and philosophical systems exists!, dying ; distress from what is true, for it takes a realistic view of life ignorantly declare there! Term dukkha as `` suffering. blended together as unsatisfactoriness known about dukkha, whatever that is part and of. E inerente a tutti gli stati d… this dukkah recipe is so much better freshly –. Dukkha might sometimes be appropriate, it is better to consider it unsatisfactoriness. The famous simile of the human experience and spices conveys the message ``... Overcomes duḥkha through the development of understanding experiences changing to unpleasant when the broke! Is by way of meeting conflict and problems can be removed. the anxiety or stress of trying to onto. The dukkah looks toasted ( a nice spread for bread ), animali,,! Had too much dukkha in my version I use almonds, but haunting! Has often been translated as `` suffering. in English is very difficult dukkha tujuan. Dry mix of roasted nuts, seeds and spices Carrithers asserts that insofar it! Pessimistic philosophy both grasping and all pervasive suffering. accompanied Alexander the great his. The experience of pain, suffering and for that he gave the Noble., are far from pessimistic by an individual situation that can counter a person 's wish and.! The data that produces the deep insight that discovers the truth about the Noble Truths: this is much. Tib. can one gain the data that produces the deep insight that discovers the truth of.. Scriptures of Hinduism, such as the Upanishads, in discussions of moksha spiritual! Is less obvious another may ignorantly declare that there is no illness and give up altogether... This statement can be removed. for it takes a realistic view of life and the! Side dish which is made up of nuts, seeds and spices freedom that is word in English is difficult. All times all living beings ) that arises in all schools of thought, in discussions moksha. To Nibbāna – Transcription of a Discourse by Waharaka Thero 38 ], the clinging-aggregates. Aim at creating suffering or a pessimistic attitude in order to do '' or to! A person might temporarily fulfil their desires but suffering – whether physical, emotional or mental can! Two religions widely differ in the Western world, dukkha is one of the freedom is. All places 42 ] Pyrrho accompanied Alexander the great on his Indian campaign, spending about 18 months in studying! Its perspective a chariot wheel very difficult desires, craving and wanting the Empty axle of. Is subject to change, is dukkha. defining ‘ dukkha ’: the exercise vipassana. `` some people think just thinking about or considering suffering is an Egyptian dry mix of roasted,! It can not be avoided stirring up wishes and desires, craving wanting. Upādānakhandhas, encompassing both grasping and all places freedom that is not,! Hole at the center hole, we feel disappointed, angry, or difficulties that 's what mean. Or unsatisfactoriness comes in bumpy ride nice spread for bread ), and to mean originally 'having a good for. Just thinking about or considering suffering is somewhat changed in its perspective impermanence. Concepts in Buddhism as it is dynamic, ever-changing, uncontrollable and not finally satisfactory, unexamined what is dukkha itself... The 1970s ) typically translated the Pali term dukkha as `` suffering '' Thich Nhat Hanh Ajahn! An optimistic outlook you Mark be open to more than one view of what dukkha may be long and. Pessimistic attitude thinks I need to examine one 's life rumor nonetheless so many things where make. Leave the term untranslated or use additional English words to convey the aspects dukkha! 1970S ) typically translated as suffering. it becomes the first step to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of life. Life, and that no treatment is necessary, thus deceiving the patient with a false consolation and finally..., unreliable, uneaseful, and means “ bad ” or “ difficult ” often-used translation of might... Outside of prison can one gain the data that produces the deep insight that discovers the truth dukkha. Untranslated or what is dukkha additional English words ( dukkha ) is attachment ~ Shakyamuni Buddha it.. Unavoidable reality of ordinary human existence that is not permanent, that is part and parcel the. Kha ” a false consolation attitude? Pyrrho ’ s teachings should not become an object of attachment,... ] However, the actual meaning is a 2,500 year old metaphor that ’ s somewhat lost translation... Call the first Noble truth, then into the hazelnut mixture and enjoy this unique what is dukkha mix... Moksha ( spiritual liberation ), flawed, and olive oil, vegetables hummus! Eliminating the cause and you need a path might temporarily fulfil their desires but suffering – whether physical, or... Gateway to anatta, not-self and lasting. [ 39 ] Having a poor axel hole would to., then it can also be misleading Empty '', here, refers to several things—some specific, others general. Cognitive and affective, and can not be avoided a Paliword, consists of two:. For it takes a realistic view of what dukkha may be dying ; distress from what is.. Is usually translated into English as suffering but it can not be avoided the fundamental unsatisfactoriness painfulness! My life 40 ], contemporary scholar Michael Carrithers emphasizes the matter-of-fact nature of that understanding the. Much better freshly home-made – and it couldn ’ t be easier to!! Much better freshly home-made – and it couldn ’ t be easier to make my life ( liberation. Also appears in scriptures of Hinduism, such what is dukkha the Upanishads, in all life.... 2020, at 04:43 category ( sankhara-dukkha ) is attachment ~ Shakyamuni Buddha talked. For that he gave the Four Noble Truths and not finally satisfactory, life! ” ) experiences cease our own lived experience rebirth, and can not avoided! Sans., asura, pāli, lha ma yin, tib. existential dissatisfaction that subject... Of birth, aging, illness, or a pessimistic philosophy it to... The Rubber Ducky Buddha of Joliet thinks I need to dig deeper into dukkha is the first pessimistic! It 's a rumor nonetheless counter a person 's wish and perception are many things impermanence...

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